Tree Service

Stump Removal – How to Properly Remove a Stump

Stump Removal Austin are eyesores that can attract pests, hinder mowing, and encourage unwanted weeds. They also take up valuable garden space.

The best and fastest way to remove a stump is by grinding it. It’s quick, thorough, and leaves the site ready for remodeling. This method requires heavy equipment, so think carefully about how to get the machine in place and out again.

Stump removal using manual methods is often the most thorough option, but it can take the longest time. It involves cutting away the stump with a chainsaw or axe and then digging up the roots manually. This method can be especially difficult if the stump’s roots have grown into the turf, under driveways, around pipes, or into foundations. It’s often best to hire a professional to handle this type of work, as they have the appropriate tools and training to tackle it without damaging your yard or home.

Another way to remove a tree stump is by drilling holes into the major structure and injecting a chemical mixture that promotes rapid rot. The chemicals used for this purpose include potassium nitrate, sulphuric acid, and nitric acid. After a few weeks, the stump will be completely rotted and ready for removal. This is a good option for homeowners who are quick to finish the job and want to be sure it’s completed correctly.

You can use Epsom salt or rock salt to rot a stump or try a non-chemical alternative. First, drill holes into the stump’s surface and then fill each with salt. Cover the hole with a tarp or other protective material to prevent moisture and contamination from getting in. It takes about three or four weeks for the stump to become soft and rotten enough to remove with an ax or hatchet.

When you’re ready to take the next step, removing the remaining part of the stump can be as simple as burning it. If you go this route, it’s important to use caution and follow local laws regarding the safe disposal of waste. You should also encase the stump in chicken wire and remove all leaves from nearby areas to prevent fire hazards. This is a great option for people who want to avoid the long, drawn-out process of stump grinding. This is often the fastest and most effective method of removing a stump. However, it’s still worth contacting a tree service to see your options for the most thorough and cost-effective method of stump removal.

A large stump can create a tripping hazard for anyone walking through your yard. It may also attract insects and critters that can damage the lawn or garden. Using a stump removal chemical is an effective way to kill the stump and protect your property.

There are many different types of stump remover chemicals, but most contain potassium nitrate. This chemical is one of the best for killing green stumps and encouraging decomposition in decaying seasoned stumps. Most products that contain potassium nitrate are in the form of granules, making them easy to apply.

Other popular stump removal chemicals include copper sulfate and triclopyr. While triclopyr is a powerful herbicide that can kill any plant it touches, including grass and trees, it can be dangerous to children, pets, livestock, and wildlife. On the other hand, copper sulfate is a safer alternative to triclopyr and is an excellent deterrent for mosquitoes, insect larvae, and other pests.

Most stump-killing chemicals require drilling holes in the surface of the tree stump and applying the chemical. Once used, the chemical can sit for a while to ensure it has time to work its magic. The time it takes for a stump to rot and break down depends on the size and type of tree and the climate. Soaking the area and covering it with a plastic tarp can help speed up the process.

Several liquid tree stump killers are on the market for those who prefer not to use a powder. One of the most popular is Stump-Out, which has high reviews on online product review sites. Another option is Spectracide, which uses picloram to kill the stump and roots.

It is important to remember that although stump removal chemicals can be a fast and effective solution, they are not environmentally friendly. They leave a toxic residue that can contaminate surrounding plants and wildlife. If you’re looking for a more ecological option, consider using a stump grinder to grind up the stump and then fill in the hole with soil and sod.

A stump and its root system can be unsightly and take up valuable yard space. They can also be a safety hazard for children and pets playing in the area, become home to unwelcome pests such as termites and carpenter ants, and attract fungus. Left untouched, they can also grow into other trees, plants, and structures in the landscape and cause damage to the soil, water, or sewer lines.

If you are willing to put in the time and effort, you can manually remove a stump from your yard using the chop-and-pull method. This involves digging around the stump and roots with a shovel and cutting them with an ax, hatchet, or chainsaw to expose as many main roots as possible. Once you have served as many roots as possible, you can use a power drill to make holes in the stump that are an inch wide and eight to 12 inches deep, three to four inches apart. Then, you can pour the chemical potassium nitrate into each hole. This will accelerate the decomposition of the stump and make it easier to remove.

Alternatively, you can cover the stump with a tarp and mulch, then wait for it to rot. After a few weeks, it will be soft and spongy enough to break apart with an axe or a chainsaw. You can repeat the process to speed up the rotting process and prepare the site for new planting.

You can even use the resulting wood chips as mulch for the rest of your landscaping. And if you’re feeling creative, you can turn the stump into an artistic feature in your yard by building a fairy or gnome house, seating, or planter. However, if you’re looking for a more efficient solution, consider calling a professional to grind or remove your tree stumps. They can use a mechanical stump grinder or chemical treatment to speed up the decay process and make the stump easier to remove, ensuring that it won’t be a tripping hazard for you, your family, or your guests.

One of the most effective ways to remove a tree stump is using modern equipment, such as a stump grinder. However, This can be challenging to operate and may be expensive. Nevertheless, it is the most effective way to eliminate a stubborn stump.

Another way to kill a stump is with boiling water. To use this method, first expose as much of the stump’s root system as possible. Next, drill holes into the roots and on top of the stump. Finally, pour boiling water over the entire stump and its roots. This will shock the roots and cause intense damage, resulting in death.

You can pour kerosene or fuel oil into the holes you drilled for a quicker, more labor-free alternative. Allow the liquid to absorb into the stump for a few weeks before lighting it on fire. This will quickly burn out the stump and leave a charcoal-filled hole behind.

You can also use Epsom salt or rock salt to kill a stump. To do this, drill holes into the stump’s surface and fill each hole with the salts. Then, cover the entire stump with a light-proof tarp. The tarp will shield the stump from sunlight and help accelerate the natural decomposition process. After a few months, the stump should be dead and can then be pulled out of the ground.

Lastly, you can use a chemical such as phosphorous to kill the stump. This is especially useful if you’re trying to eliminate an old and unhealthy stump that will not die naturally. Pour the chemical onto the stump and let it soak in for a few days. Then, light a fire on top of and around the stump. The fire will burn out the stump and bury any remaining parts of the wood in ash.

Stump removal is an important lawn and garden project. It can help you save space by removing the unsightly remains of a fallen tree and making way for new plants, such as grass, flowers, or shrubs. It can also prevent the spread of unwanted or invasive plant species. Finally, it can improve your yard’s overall look and enhance your home’s beauty. However, before chopping and grinding, check local laws regarding open-flame burning.

Tree Service

Why It’s Important to Invest in a Tree Service Company

Tree service can help you save time and money by trimming dead limbs, pruning excessive growth, and maintaining the health of trees. They also provide emergency services when storms or other events damage your property and its trees.

Tree Service

Before hiring a tree service, be sure to ask for quotes in writing and request proof of insurance. This includes personal and property damage liability insurance, and workers’ compensation insurance.

Tree cutting and trimming is a dangerous job, with hazards including falling from heights; electrocution from coming into contact with live wires; being hit by falling tree branches or felled trees; and injuries from using chainsaws and other equipment. This is why it is important to hire a professional tree service that takes the safety of their employees and customers seriously. In addition to providing proper safety training and equipment, they will also ensure that all necessary permits are in place before starting work.

A good tree service will assess the situation and make sure that there are no power lines or other dangerous structures in the area before beginning the trimming process. They will also look for signs of disease or structural weaknesses that could cause problems with the tree’s stability. They will also take into account the surrounding environment, such as whether it is near a road or other buildings.

It is also important to have the right equipment for the job, including a hard hat, gloves, and safety glasses. Other essential tools include a ladder and a chainsaw. A hard hat protects the head from falling limbs and debris, while gloves keep the hands from cuts and puncture wounds. Safety glasses or goggles are important for protecting the eyes from dust and debris.

Workers should be trained in the safe use of all equipment and follow ANSI standards for tree care operations. They should be instructed to assume that all power lines are energized and to avoid all contact with them until they are verified as de-energized. They should also be trained to understand how a tree falls when cut and to pad the felling zone.

A good tree service will have a qualified trainer who can teach their workers about the proper techniques for trimming and pruning trees. They will also provide proper safety training and procedures for using equipment, such as a chainsaw. They will also have a written plan for each job and follow it closely. This will help them prevent accidents and keep their crews safe.


Tree service companies deal with a lot of risk and liability, especially when it comes to property damage. This makes it important to get insurance coverage that will protect the business from damage, injury, and lawsuits. Moreover, it is vital to make sure that the business has a solid reputation and customer base in order to attract new clients.

Before hiring a tree service company, it is essential to check its online reviews and credentials. You should also know if it has any complaints in local forums and discussion groups. In addition, you should find out whether it has an ISA certification, which indicates that the arborist is qualified to perform certain tasks. You can even look for a company that offers specialty services such as bracing and cabling, and stump grinding.

The type of services that a tree service company makes will also have an impact on its profitability. Lower-value services such as pruning and fertilizing produce more jobs but generate less revenue, while higher-value services like emergency tree removal or root work provide more value per customer. Another factor to consider is whether a tree service company will focus on residential or commercial clients. While both have their advantages, commercial clients tend to produce more profit and are often easier to manage.

In order to increase the chances of attracting new customers, tree service companies should consider advertising their services on the internet. This can be done through Google Ad PPC campaigns, which will promote the business to people searching for arborists in their area. Alternatively, the company can also use Display ads, which are graphics that appear on search result pages. In both cases, the company should create a customized website to promote its services.

It is also important to set up a business bank account. By using a business account, you can separate your personal assets from those of the company. In addition, you can also access tax deductions and benefits that are not available to individuals.


In the case of a business, insurance is an important investment that helps minimize the risk of a single accident shuttering the company. Tree service companies are no exception and should invest in various business policies to mitigate the risks of a major blunder or disaster.

General liability insurance for tree service companies covers third-party accidents, like a client’s property getting damaged or someone tripping over an arborist’s equipment. This policy can be bundled with commercial property insurance to save on premiums as part of a business owner’s policy (BOP). Errors and omissions insurance, also known as professional liability insurance, protects tree services from claims that they gave poor advice or recommended unnecessary services. A client may sue a tree service for this type of mistake, and it can be very costly to defend against such a claim.

A workers’ compensation policy is required in most states for tree service businesses that have employees. This policy pays for medical expenses and a portion of lost wages when an employee is injured on the job. Most clients require a copy of a worker’s comp certificate before signing a contract, and it is a good idea to include in your contracts that you will provide this documentation.

Allstate offers a business protection policy that includes several coverages that can be customized to fit the needs of a tree service business. The policy includes worker’s compensation, general liability, business property and auto insurance. The policy can be augmented with additional coverage for tree removal liability and computer fraud.

When choosing a business insurance provider, it’s important to speak with a specialist who understands the unique risks of working in the tree service industry. These experts can help guide you to the appropriate policies and coverages to ensure that your business is protected. They can also help you draft a contract that transfers some of the liability to your clients, which will lower your insurance costs in the long run. This can include service terms, contact information, payment terms, and an indemnity clause that transfers the cost of a mistake back to the customer.


Trees add value to your home and are a beautiful addition to any landscape. However, they can also cause problems if they get out of control. They can block your driveway or cause damage to your roof, and they can also be a fire hazard if they get too close to power lines. When these problems occur, it’s important to find a professional tree service. Fortunately, most tree services have the equipment needed to remove trees safely. These tools include rigging, climbing gear, wood chippers, stump grinders, chainsaws, and aerial lifts. These tools help arborists perform a variety of tasks, such as trimming and pruning, removing dead and damaged limbs, thinning out crowded branches, and removing large roots and stumps.

The equipment used by a Tree Service depends on the job at hand. For example, a small crew may only need a single tree saw and some climbing ropes. A larger crew may need to use more advanced rigging and cutting equipment. The type of equipment used is important because it affects the safety and quality of work performed.

A good Tree Service will keep their equipment clean and well maintained. They will also provide their customers with details on how the work will be performed and will notify them of any potential dangers. In addition, they will follow industry standards for working near energized power lines. This includes a clearance of eight feet on each side, 10 feet below the line, and 15 feet above the line.

Trenchers are essential for the removal of large root systems and removing and disposing of debris. They are also useful for installing utility poles and repairing storm damage. Tree Service companies often have these tools in their inventory, but they can also rent them out to clients.

Tree Service

Palm Tree Trimming

Palm Tree Trimming Phoenix is a critical part of proper palm tree maintenance. Over-trimming can leave your palm vulnerable to disease and pests, while under-trimming can lead to an unbalanced appearance.

Start at the bottom of the palm and work your way up, removing dead fronds as you go. Be careful not to remove green fronds, the palm’s food factories!

Palm trees are a beautiful and timeless addition to any home. Regular pruning is essential to keep them looking their best. This can help the tree stay healthy and channel its energy toward new fronds and stems. Using the right tools is also important. These tools can vary depending on the tree size and the type of cuts needed. However, certain basic tools should be used to trim palms.

The first thing that needs to be done is to prepare the tools before making any cuts. This should include cleaning the tools with rubbing alcohol and sanitizing them. This is necessary to prevent the palm from picking up any bacteria or diseases from the tools. This will also make the pruning process safer and more efficient, allowing you to finish more in less time.

Some common tools used in palm tree trimming include shears, loppers, and pruning saws. Pruning shears are ideal for cutting smaller dead fronds and branches. They have sharp blades and are available in a variety of sizes. You can use a pair of loppers with a diameter of up to 2 inches for larger stems. A pole saw is another tool commonly used to trim tall palms. This powerful tool can reach heights of up to 20 feet.

It is also important to avoid over-pruning palms. Removing too many fronds can cause the palm to go into a “deficit mode.” This means that it will not be able to produce enough food for itself. It can also lead to the death of the plant.

Removing loose debris from the tree is also important when pruning a palm. This will help the tree heal faster and prevent pests from laying eggs on the fronds and stems. Removing ropes or ties from the tree after pruning is also a good idea.

While palm trees are easy to care for, it is important to take safety measures when working with them. This includes wearing gloves, eye protection, and a hard hat. Using a ladder when working with tall palms is also a good idea.

Palms can grow quite high, making them easier to trim with proper safety measures. Failure to use safety equipment such as climbing harnesses or ropes can lead to falls and severe injuries. In addition, working with ladders and power tools requires extra precautions to avoid falling debris or electrocution.

Additionally, removing the fronds from palm trees releases spores that can cause itching and rashes, so wearing long sleeves and pants and protecting yourself from these irritants is important. Keeping water nearby is essential in case you get overexerted or lose balance.

Before cutting, sanitize your pruning tools with rubbing alcohol. This will prevent the tree from getting an infection from your trimming tools, much like how a surgeon uses sterile instruments during surgery. Determining which fronds you’ll trim before you start is also a good idea, as this will help you work more efficiently and safely.

Another safety measure when trimming palms is to remove any flowers or fruit that are developing, as these will take energy and nutrients away from the tree and can be a hazard for people walking beneath them. In addition, they can attract pests and lead to further damage if left unattended.

If you’re trimming a palm tree near your home, consider hiring a professional to do the job. They’ll know how to perform safe cuts that will not affect your house or other structures in the area. In addition, they’ll be aware of any local ordinances and can ensure that your project complies with these regulations.

While you can save money by trimming your palm trees, this is a dangerous job for those with little experience or the right tools. It can take a full day to decorate a single palm tree properly, so it’s best to leave this task to the professionals and enjoy your backyard without worrying about your safety.

While DIY palm tree trimming may seem cost-effective, it is best left to professional arborists with the proper training and equipment. This helps ensure the job is done correctly and safely, preventing injury or death. Homeowners should follow safety precautions when trimming palm trees, including wearing protective gear and removing valuable items from the area before starting work. They should also sanitize their tools before cutting, as this will reduce the risk of disease spreading between trees.

First, homeowners should identify dead fronds on the tree and trim them using a pruning saw or loppers. They should be careful not to cut into green fronds, which is necessary for the tree’s health. In addition, it is important not to remove more than 20% of a palm’s fronds at one time, as doing so can cause the tree to become stressed and affect its growth.

It is also a good idea to avoid removing the lower fronds of a palm, as doing so can create a thatched appearance. Another common mistake is over-trimming, which can impact a palm’s health and lead to the tree’s death. Over-trimming also leaves the palm vulnerable to pests and diseases, while under-trimming can affect its appearance.

In addition, it is important not to cut into the trunk of a palm. This can lead to rot and damage to the tree’s roots, which could cause it to die. Additionally, it is important not to use any treatment or sealant on the fronds or trunk after trimming, as these can interfere with the tree’s natural healing process and increase the risk of disease.

Finally, it is important to dispose of any trimmed debris responsibly. Leaving it on the ground can attract insects and other pests and encourage the growth of unwanted plants and vines. It is a good idea to consult with local waste disposal service departments for instructions on properly disposing of palm debris.

Finally, it is important to note that adding soil amendments when planting a palm tree is only sometimes necessary. Some experts believe that adding these additives can hinder the plant’s natural ability to grow. In contrast, others argue that it is important to amend the soil when planting a palm so that it has access to more nutrients and moisture.

Palm tree trimming is dangerous and should only be done by professionals with the right equipment and knowledge. Before beginning, ensure that the area surrounding the palm is cleared of objects that could fall on you or your property when you cut off fronds. It is also best to keep pets and children away from the area so they don’t get injured by falling fronds. Additionally, wearing protective gear while cutting a palm tree is essential so you don’t get hurt. You should also wear long-sleeved clothing and sturdy work boots to protect yourself from sharp blades. Wearing a hard hat and eye protection is also a good idea. In addition, you should check if your local laws permit tree removal and ask for help from professionals if the palm is located in a difficult-to-reach area.

Once you’ve cleared the area, start with the bottom of the tree and then move up. Remember that green fronds are vital for the tree’s health, so only remove brown or dead fronds (except for yellow ones).

When cutting, use a hand saw or pruning shears to avoid damaging other parts of the tree. Be careful not to remove more fronds than the tree can produce in a year, or it may begin to weaken and fail. It’s also important to prune the palm’s trunk to prevent rot and give it a cleaner look.

Finally, be sure to dispose of the discarded fronds properly. They contain needle-like protrusions that can prick those who handle them, so be sure to wear gardening gloves when disposing of them. It’s also a good idea to pick up fallen fruit, flowers, or seeds and store them in a trash bin designed for organic waste.

After finishing your pruning work, treat any wounds with a commercial tree wound dressing and cover them to prevent fungus from infiltrating them. Once the damage has healed, remove any ropes or ties from the tree and reopen pathways for air and light to reach other canopy parts.

Tree Service

Pruning Techniques

Palm Tree Trimming Las Vegas removes plant parts to maintain a desired form or function. It enhances appearance, encourages fruiting and flowering, controls growth, or limits storm damage.

Pruning a tree is best conducted during the late winter before spring. This minimizes the risk of spreading disease to a new area.

tree service

Trees may be pruned in several ways to achieve different goals. The four most common pruning methods are crown thinning, crown raising, crown reduction and crown cleaning. Generally, all of these techniques involve removing branches or twigs from the canopy to open the plant and control its size or height.

During the late dormant season is the best time to prune for most species. This minimizes the risk of damage or disease from winter frost, insect infestation or other environmental stress.

Pruning at other times is possible for some temperate-climate woody plants, but this increases the risk of damaging new growth or exposing it to weather extremes. When pruning, the aim should be to restore health and beauty to the tree or shrub, enabling it to perform its intended function in the landscape.

Removing dead or dying limbs is the most important pruning task for many plants. It reduces the risk of insect infestation and fungal disease, and it frees up a full canopy to allow light and air to reach the ground below. Dead wood can also lead to rot and decay, so it should be removed as soon as it is noticed.

Many flowering trees and shrubs bloom on old wood (last year’s growth), and should be pruned after they finish flowering. Examples include rhododendrons (Rhododendron spp), dogwoods (Cornus spp), lilacs (Syringa spp) and forsythia (Forsythia spp). For these types of plants, pruning should take place in early spring after the flowers fade, or during winter dormancy.

Other kinds of shrubs, such as those with mounding (e.g. evergreen azalea), spreading (e.g. winter jasmine) or even tree-like (e.g. crape myrtle) growth habits, should be pruned to remove crowded limbs and promote air circulation within the plant. It’s also a good idea to eliminate limbs that obstruct traffic or buildings, or those with narrow V-shaped crotches.

When pruning, shearing or other close-cropping cuts should be avoided. Such cutting creates stubs that restrict the flow of water and nutrients to the rest of the plant and can also encourage suckering and other undesirable growth. When removing diseased limbs, always make the cut at the point where the damaged tissue meets healthy branch or trunk material. Also, be sure to clean and disinfect your tools between cuts with rubbing alcohol or Listerine.

Thinning refers to the selective removal of some plants in order to make room for others to grow. In forest management, thinning can be used to make a timber stand more profitable for an upcoming harvest, or it can be used to advance ecological goals, such as increasing biodiversity or accelerating the development of desired structural attributes like large diameter trees with long tree crowns.

Thinned stands produce more lumber than unthinned ones. In addition, thinning helps reduce fire hazards, makes the site more productive and improves habitat conditions for wildlife species. However, thinning can also be a costly undertaking and can have negative effects if it is carried out improperly.

There are a number of different thinning methods, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. These methods are categorized by their intensity and tree selection criteria.

Generally, thinning is done in order to increase the growth rate of existing trees or to accelerate the development of desired structural attributes, such as a high canopy cover and long tree crowns. Commercial thinning is most common west of the mountains, where it is often used to prepare the forest for an upcoming timber harvest or to advance ecological objectives such as improving biodiversity or increasing wildlife habitat.

Thinning can be done either before or after a forest clearcut, and there are various ways of doing it, including mechanical thinning and chemical thinning. Mechanical thinning involves the use of machines such as chainsaws and wood processors to remove a portion of the crown of a live tree without cutting or damaging the trunk. This is most commonly used on larger ornamental and fruit trees. Chemical thinning, on the other hand, involves the use of chemicals such as Roundup to kill the stems of a live tree while leaving the roots intact.

Other thinning techniques include crown releasing, compensatory thinning and free thinning. Crown releasing thinning is most commonly used in pine-dominated forest stands where the trees are in their early-successional stage and is intended to promote future tree growth. This thinning method requires that the trees are well-rooted and able to react quickly to the thinning. It is recommended that this thinning be done periodically throughout the rotation.

The ancient practice of pollarding is an effective way to manage the height of mature deciduous trees. It involves the regular removal of a portion of the tree’s upper branches, promoting the growth of a dense head of foliage and branches.

The technique, like coppicing, works best with species that readily respond to the pruning. For this reason, it is often employed with willows and hazel, which can resprout vigorously after a cut. Often, the new shoots will be the size of a standard shrub.

Like coppicing, pollarding is a sustainable pruning method. It can be used to create a sustainable source of small-diameter branches for a variety of uses, including firewood and timber. The sprouts that develop from pollard cuts can also be harvested as “tree hay” or used as a type of cloning material (withies).

As a forestry management tool, it can help increase biodiversity. When conducted on a regular basis, the system can encourage ground cover to thrive beneath the pollards and promote a diverse habitat for birds and insects. In addition, it can allow for more light to reach the woodland floor, encouraging undergrowth plants and wildflowers to grow.

A major advantage of this pruning technique is that it reduces the need to recut the same areas of a tree. This results in less stress on the remaining limbs, which can help reduce the risk of disease. In addition, it can help to control the height of a tree for aesthetic, health and safety reasons. When done properly, this is a highly sustainable tree management technique that can benefit the environment and urban landscapes alike. Moreover, when carried out in conjunction with coppicing and restoration pruning, it can be an effective way to reclaim neglected urban landscapes. The regrowth can provide a canopy for the community while maintaining the health and beauty of the area.

Training is a way of shaping trees and shrubs to achieve a particular form. It uses selective pruning and limb positioning to encourage desirable growth, control height and shape. Training can be done on fruit trees, grapes, berries and even ornamental plants. It can be done to correct plant form or shape, reduce damage caused by wind or storms, or to maintain healthy trees and bushes with a clean look.

There are many different training and pruning systems used to train horticultural plants and fruit trees. Some are better suited to certain cultivars or climates than others. Many growers develop their own system of training that works best for their operation and conditions. Home gardeners may also modify pruning systems to meet their own needs.

Pruning involves the removal of dead or diseased wood, regulating crop load and stimulating regrowth. A good pruning job will result in a healthier tree with a greater capacity to produce quality fruit and provide beauty to the landscape.

Properly pruned trees have improved appearance, are easier to manage and maintain, and will bear more fruit over a longer period of time. It is important that all pruning cuts be made with a sharp, sterile pruning shears to ensure proper wound closure. The branch collar (a swelling at the base of most branches) should not be removed because it contains callus cells that help wounds heal. It is also important that all pruning cuts be sloping, not angling, to prevent the formation of a crotch that can weaken the plant and increase the chances of rot or disease.

When a young fruit tree is planted, it should be headed when it grows three feet in its first year. This will promote branching and develop a strong framework.

Once the central leader has been trained for two or four years, it can be removed to create the open center system. It is important to continue thinning to keep the tree in its desired height. One or two thinning cuts a year will reduce crowding and maintain a balanced canopy.